#199th Country to Visit our BLOG! WELCOME Uzbekistan Population: 28,394,180


 Background
Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of “white gold” (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
 Geography
Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Location: Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Area: total: 447,400 sq km land: 425,400 sq km water: 22,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than California

Land Boundaries: total: 6,221 km border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked); note – Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)
Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use: arable land: 10.51% permanent crops: 0.76% other: 88.73% (2005)
Irrigated land: 42,230 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Population: 28,394,180 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.5% (male 3,817,755/female 3,635,142) 15-64 years: 68.8% (male 9,620,356/female 9,742,818) 65 years and over: 4.7% (male 560,574/female 751,955) (2011 est.)
Median age: total: 26.2 years male: 25.7 years female: 26.8 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.94% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 17.33 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 5.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 25.12 deaths/1,000 live births female: 17.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.77 years male: 69.74 years female: 75.98 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 28,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Uzbekistani adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Languages: Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.3% male: 99.6% female: 99% (2003 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan conventional short form: Uzbekistan local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi local short form: Ozbekiston former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital: name: Tashkent (Toshkent) geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular – viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg’ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog’iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Constitution: adopted 8 December 1992; amended in 2002
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991) head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote – Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom T0SHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%, other 3.2%
Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (Qonunchilik Palatasi) (150 seats; 135 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, while 15 spots reserved for the new Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan) elections: last held on 27 December 2009 and 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014) election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NA; Legislative Chamber – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – LDPU 53, NDP 32, National Rebirth Party 31, Adolat 19 note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly); Constitutional Court, Arbitration Court, Higher Economic Court
Political parties and leaders: Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan; Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU; National Rebirth Party of Uzbekistan (Milliy Tiklanish); People’s Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or NDP (formerly Communist Party)
Political pressure groups and leaders: there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ilhomjon NEMATOV chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300 FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804 consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL embassy: 3 Moyqo’rq’on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450 FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
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 Economy
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; 11% of the land is intensely cultivated, in irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. Export of hydrocarbons, primarily natural gas, provided about 40% of foreign exchange earnings in 2009. Other major export earners include gold and cotton. Uzbekistan is now the world’s second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it has come under increasing international criticism for the use of child labor in its annual cotton harvest. Uzbekistan enjoyed a bumper cotton crop in 2010 amidst record high prices, but is gradually diversifying away from cotton toward more high-value fruits and vegetables. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Uzbekistan has posted GDP growth of over 8% for the past several years, driven primarily by rising world prices for its main export commodities – natural gas, cotton and gold – and some industrial growth. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), which it subsequently left in 2008, both organizations dominated by Russia. In the past Uzbekistani authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbekistani tax laws and have frozen their assets, with several new expropriations in 2010-11. At the same time, the Uzbekistani Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering attractive financing and tax advantages, and has landed a significant US investment in the automotive industry, including the opening of a powertrain manufacturing facility in Tashkent in November, 2011. Uzbekistan has seen few effects from the global economic downturn, primarily due to its relative isolation from the global financial markets.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $96.46 billion (2011 est.) $89.07 billion (2010 est.) $82.09 billion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $45.35 billion (2011 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 8.3% (2011 est.) 8.5% (2010 est.) 8.1% (2009 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $3,300 (2011 est.) $3,100 (2010 est.) $2,900 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 21.9% industry: 37.7% services: 40.3% (2011 est.)
Labor force: 16.11 million (2011 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 44% industry: 20% services: 36% (1995)
Unemployment rate: 1% (2011 est.) 1.1% (2010 est.) note: officially measured by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed
Population below poverty line: 26% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 36.8 (2003) 44.7 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.5% (2011 est.) 9.4% (2010 est.) note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2011
Budget: revenues: $14.93 billion expenditures: $14.77 billion (2011 est.)
Public debt: 8.4% of GDP (2011 est.) 8.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
Agriculture – products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2010 est.)
Electricity – production: 47.42 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 40.1 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – exports: 11.52 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – imports: 11.44 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Oil – production: 87,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – consumption: 104,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – exports: 2,078 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – imports: 9,013 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – proved reserves: 594 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas – production: 59.1 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 45.5 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 15.2 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance: $3.36 billion (2011 est.) $2.637 billion (2010 est.)
Exports: $12.59 billion (2011 est.) $11.08 billion (2010 est.)
Exports – commodities: energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Exports – partners: Russia 20.9%, Turkey 17.1%, China 14.7%, Kazakhstan 10.3%, Bangladesh 8.7% (2011)
Imports: $8.53 billion (2011 est.) $7.48 billion (2010 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Imports – partners: Russia 21.4%, South Korea 19.1%, China 15.1%, Germany 7.4%, Kazakhstan 5.6% (2011)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $15 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $12.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Debt – external: $8.57 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $7.404 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA (31 December 2010) $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar – 1,714.1 (2011 est.) 1,587.2 (2010 est.) 1,466.7 (2009) 1,317 (2008) 1,263.8 (2007)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1.864 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 61
Cellular Phones in use: 20.952 million (2009)
Telephone system: general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities but still antiquated and inadequate in rural areas domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are growing rapidly, with the subscriber base reaching 21 million in 2011 international: country code – 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Afghanistan (2009)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .uz
Internet hosts: 56,334 (2010)
Internet users: 4.689 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 53 (2012) country comparison to the world: 87
Airports (paved runways): total: 33 over 3,047 m: 6 2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 4 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 20 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 under 914 m: 18 (2012)
Pipelines: gas 10,253 km; oil 868 km (2010)
Railways: total: 3,645 km broad gauge: 3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total: 86,496 km paved: 75,511 km unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
Waterways: 1,100 km (2012)
Ports and terminals: Termiz (Amu Darya)
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2009)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 7,887,292 females age 16-49: 7,886,459 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 6,566,118 females age 16-49: 6,745,818 (2010 est.)

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