The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a “people power” movement in Manila (“EDSA 1”) forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA’s stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another “people power” movement (“EDSA 2”) demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government’s Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and on-again/off-again peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People’s Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial claims in the South China Sea.

The Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia’s main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 122 00 E
Area: total: 300,000 sq km land: 298,170 sq km water: 1,830 sq kmSize comparison: slightly larger than Arizona
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 36,289 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use: arable land: 19% permanent crops: 16.67% other: 64.33% (2005)
Irrigated land: 152,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms each year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Taal (elev. 311 m), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a “Decade Volcano” by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (elev. 2,462 m), the country’s most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo and Ragang
Current Environment Issues: uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
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Population: 103,775,002 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.6% (male 17,999,279/female 17,285,040) 15-64 years: 61.1% (male 31,103,967/female 31,097,203) 65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,876,805/female 2,471,644) (2011 est.)
Median age: total: 23.1 years male: 22.6 years female: 23.6 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.873% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 24.98 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 18.75 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.21 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.94 years male: 68.99 years female: 75.03 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.15 children born/woman (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 8,700 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Filipino(s) adjective: Philippine
Ethnic groups: Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
Religions: Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
Languages: Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects – Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 92.6% male: 92.5% female: 92.7% (2000 census)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines conventional short form: Philippines local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas local short form: Pilipinas
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Manila geographic coordinates: 14 36 N, 120 58 E time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 80 provinces and 39 chartered cities provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay chartered cities: Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Baguio, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caloocan, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Davao, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Lucena, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, San Juan, Santiago, Tacloban, Taguig, Valenzuela, Zamboanga (2012)
Independence: 12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)
National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note – 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US
Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil, common, Islamic, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010); Vice President Jejomar BINAY (since 30 June 2010); note – president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election held on 10 May 2010 (next election to be held in May 2016) election results: Benigno AQUINO elected president; percent of vote – Benigno AQUINO 42.1%, Joseph ESTRADA 26.3%, seven others 31.6%; Jejomar BINAY elected vice president; percent of vote Jejomar BINAY 41.6%, Manuel ROXAS 39.6%, six others 18.8%
Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats – one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan (287 seats – 230 members in one tier representing districts and 57 sectoral party-list members in a second tier representing special minorities elected on the basis of one seat for every 2% of the total vote but with each party limited to three seats); a party represented in one tier may not hold seats in the other tier; all House members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms note: the constitution limits the House of Representatives to 250 members; the number of members allowed was increased, however, through legislation when in April 2009 the Philippine Supreme Court ruled that additional party members could sit in the House of Representatives if they received the required number of votes elections: Senate – elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013); House of Representatives – elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013) election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – Lakas-Kampi CMD 4, LP 4, NP 4, NPC 2, PMP 2, LDP 1, PRP 1, independents 5; note – there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – LP 119, Lakas-Kampi CMD 46, NPC 30, NP 22, others 10, independents 1, party-list 55; vacant seats – 1 district and 2 party-list
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
Political parties and leaders: Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel VILLAR]; Nationalist People’s Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People’s Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: ABONO [Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Walden BELLO]; An Waray [Florencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Ponciano PAYUYO]; A TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; BAGON HENERASYON [Bernadette HERRERA-DY]; Bayan Muna [Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE]; BUTIL [Leonila CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Cinchoa CRUZ-GONZALES]; COOP-NATCO [Jose PING-AY]; GABRIELA [Luzviminda ILAGAN]; KABATAAN [Raymon PALATINO]; Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jose L. CUISIA Jr. chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300 FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS Jr. embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000 telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000 FAX: [63] (2) 301-2399
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Philippine GDP grew 7.6% in 2010, spurred by consumer demand, a rebound in exports and investments, and election-related spending, before cooling to 3.7% in 2011. The economy weathered the 2008-09 global recession better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four- to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a growing business process outsourcing industry. Economic growth in the Philippines averaged 4.5% during the MACAPAGAL-ARROYO administration (January 2001 – June 2010). Despite this growth, however, poverty worsened during her presidency. The AQUINO administration is working to reduce the government deficit from 3.9% of GDP, when it took office, to 2% of GDP by 2013. The government has had little difficulty issuing debt, both locally and internationally, to finance the deficits. The AQUINO Administration reduced public debt to below 50% of GDP and obtained several ratings upgrades on sovereign debt so that the Philippines is now close to investment grade. However, the lack of government spending, especially on infrastructure, was one of several factors which slowed GDP growth in the second half of 2011, leading the government to announce a stimulus effort and increased public spending on infrastructure in 2012. AQUINO’s first budget emphasized education, health, conditional cash transfers for the poor, and other social spending programs, relying mostly on the private sector to finance important infrastructure projects. Weak tax collection, exacerbated by new tax breaks and incentives, has limited the government’s ability to address major challenges. The AQUINO administration has vowed to focus on improving tax collection efficiency, rather than imposing new taxes, as a part of its good governance platform. The economy still faces several long-term challenges, including reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for overseas Filipino workers.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $395.4 billion (2011 est.) $381.2 billion (2010 est.) $354.2 billion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $213.1 billion (2011 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 3.7% (2011 est.) 7.6% (2010 est.) 1.1% (2009 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $4,100 (2011 est.) $4,100 (2010 est.) $3,800 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 12.8% industry: 31.5% services: 55.7% (2011 est.)
Labor force: 40 million (2011 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 33% industry: 15% services: 52% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7% (2011 est.) 7.3% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line: 32.9% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4% highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 45.8 (2006) 46.6 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (2011 est.) 4.1% (2010 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 19.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
Budget: revenues: $31.4 billion expenditures: $35.96 billion (2011 est.)
Public debt: 50.9% of GDP (2011 est.) 52.4% of GDP (2010 est.) note: data cover central government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment. Debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Agriculture – products: sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
Industries: electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
Industrial production growth rate: 1.1% (2011 est.)
Electricity – production: 59.19 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 54.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Oil – production: 33,110 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – consumption: 310,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – exports: 60,460 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – imports: 338,400 bbl/day (September 2010 est.)
Oil – proved reserves: 138.5 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas – production: 3.15 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 3.15 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance: $7.078 billion (2011 est.) $8.924 billion (2010 est.)
Exports: $47.23 billion (2011 est.) $50.75 billion (2010 est.)
Exports – commodities: semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
Exports – partners: China 21.3%, Japan 14.1%, US 13.9%, Singapore 8.9%, Hong Kong 7.5%, South Korea 4.7% (2009 est.)
Imports: $62.68 billion (2011 est.) $61.71 billion (2010 est.)
Imports – commodities: electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
Imports – partners: China 14.6%, Japan 12.3%, US 9.4%, South Korea 8.4%, Singapore 8%, Thailand 5.6%, Indonesia 4.1% (2009 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $75.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $62.37 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Debt – external: $72.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $72.34 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $25.69 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $24.89 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $6.612 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $6.582 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $202.3 billion (31 December 2010) $130.5 billion (31 December 2009) $85.63 billion (31 December 2008)
Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar – 43.44 (2011 est.) 45.11 (2010 est.) 47.68 (2009) 44.439 (2008) 46.148 (2007)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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Telephones in use: 6.783 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 29
Cellular Phones in use: 79.896 million (2010)
Telephone system: general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate domestic: telecommunications infrastructure includes the following platforms: fixed line, mobile cellular, cable TV, over-the-air TV, radio and Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), fiber optic cable, and satellite; mobile-cellular communications now dominate the industry international: country code – 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2010)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .ph
Internet hosts: 452,050 (2010)
Internet users: 8.278 million (2009)
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Airports: 247 (2012) country comparison to the world: 25
Airports (paved runways): total: 83 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 31 914 to 1,523 m: 31 under 914 m: 9 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 164 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 60 under 914 m: 101 (2012)
Heliports: 2 (2012)
Pipelines: gas 7 km; oil 107 km; refined products 181 km (2010)
Railways: total: 995 km narrow gauge: 995 km 1.067-m gauge (484 km are in operation) (2010)
Roadways: total: 213,151 km paved: 54,481 km unpaved: 158,670 km (2009)
Waterways: 3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2011)
Merchant marine: total: 446 by type: bulk carrier 76, cargo 152, carrier 12, chemical tanker 27, container 17, liquefied gas 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 65, petroleum tanker 44, refrigerated cargo 20, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 10 foreign-owned: 159 (Bermuda 47, China 4, Denmark 2, Germany 2, Greece 5, Japan 77, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 17, Singapore 1, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1) registered in other countries: 7 (Cyprus 1, Panama 5, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila
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Military branches: Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-23 years of age (officers 20-24) for voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens with either 72 college credit hours (enlisted) or a baccalaureate degree (officers) (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 25,614,135 females age 16-49: 25,035,061 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 20,142,940 females age 16-49: 21,427,792 (2010 est.)

Author: advgrrl

Avid ADV rider! This Blog is all about the adventure in adventure riding. Researching new bikes, routes, accessories, learning about other riders and hopefully a great place for others to comment and explore with me. PLUS, up and down's, wildlife, my dogs, my life!

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