NEWEST COUNTRY #196 to View OUR BLOG SAINT HELENA!


 Background
Saint Helena is a British Overseas Territory consisting of Saint Helena and Ascension Islands, and the island group of Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena: Uninhabited when first discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, Saint Helena was garrisoned by the British during the 17th century. It acquired fame as the place of Napoleon BONAPARTE’s exile from 1815 until his death in 1821, but its importance as a port of call declined after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. During the Anglo-Boer War in South Africa, several thousand Boer prisoners were confined on the island between 1900 and 1903. Ascension Island: This barren and uninhabited island was discovered and named by the Portuguese in 1503. The British garrisoned the island in 1815 to prevent a rescue of Napoleon from Saint Helena. It served as a provisioning station for the Royal Navy’s West Africa Squadron on anti-slavery patrol. The island remained under Admiralty control until 1922, when it became a dependency of Saint Helena. During World War II, the UK permitted the US to construct an airfield on Ascension in support of trans-Atlantic flights to Africa and anti-submarine operations in the South Atlantic. In the 1960s the island became an important space tracking station for the US. In 1982, Ascension was an essential staging area for British forces during the Falklands War. It remains a critical refueling point in the air-bridge from the UK to the South Atlantic. Tristan da Cunha: The island group consists of the islands of Tristan da Cunha, Nightingale, Inaccessible, and Gough. Tristan da Cunha is named after its Portuguese discoverer (1506); it was garrisoned by the British in 1816 to prevent any attempt to rescue Napoleon from Saint Helena. Gough and Inaccessible Islands have been designated World Heritage Sites. South Africa leases a site for a meteorological station on Gough Island.

 Geography
Saint Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown elsewhere in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns; Queen Mary’s Peak on Tristan da Cunha is the highest island mountain in the South Atlantic and a prominent landmark on the sea lanes around southern Africa
Location: islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, about midway between South America and Africa; Ascension Island lies 700 nm northwest of Saint Helena; Tristan da Cunha lies 2,300 nm southwest of Saint Helena
Geographic coordinates: Saint Helena: 15 57 S, 5 42 W Ascension Island: 7 57 S, 14 22 W Tristan da Cunha island group: 37 15 S, 12 30 W
Area: total: 308 sq km land: Saint Helena Island 122 sq km; Ascension Island 88 sq km; Tristan da Cunha island group 98 sq km water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: Saint Helena: 60 km Ascension Island: NA Tristan da Cunha: 40 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: Saint Helena: tropical marine; mild, tempered by trade winds Ascension Island: tropical marine; mild, semi-arid Tristan da Cunha: temperate marine; mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)
Terrain: the islands of this group result from volcanic activity associated with the Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge Saint Helena: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains Ascension: surface covered by lava flows and cinder cones of 44 dormant volcanoes; ground rises to the east Tristan da Cunha: sheer cliffs line the coastline of the nearly circular island; the flanks of the central volcanic peak are deeply dissected; narrow coastal plain lies between The Peak and the coastal cliffs
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Queen Mary’s Peak on Tristan da Cunha 2,060 m; Green Mountain on Ascension Island 859 m; Mount Actaeon on Saint Helena Island 818 m
Natural resources: fish, lobster
Land use: arable land: 12.9% permanent crops: 0% other: 87.1% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha volcanism: the island volcanoes of Tristan da Cunha (elev. 2,060 m) and Nightingale Island (elev. 365 m) experience volcanic activity; Tristan da Cunha erupted in 1962 and Nightingale in 2004
Current Environment Issues: NA
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 People
Population: 7,728 (July 2012 est.) note: only Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha islands are inhabited
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.8% (male 697/female 671) 15-64 years: 70% (male 2,731/female 2,656) 65 years and over: 12.3% (male 468/female 477) (2011 est.)
Median age: total: 39.4 years male: 39.4 years female: 39.3 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.349% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 10.48 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 6.99 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 15.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 18.61 deaths/1,000 live births female: 12.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.91 years male: 75.98 years female: 81.98 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.57 children born/woman (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS – deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Saint Helenian(s) adjective: Saint Helenian note: referred to locally as “Saints”
Ethnic groups: African descent 50%, white 25%, Chinese 25%
Religions: Protestant (Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist), Roman Catholic
Languages: English
Literacy: definition: age 20 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 97% female: 98% (1987 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha conventional short form: none
Government type: NA
Capital: name: Jamestown geographic coordinates: 15 56 S, 5 43 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 3 administrative areas; Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Constitution: the Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009, effective 1 September 2009
Legal system: English common law and local statutes
Suffrage: 18 years of age
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) head of government: Governor Mark CAPES (since 29 October 2011) note: the constitution order provides for an administrator for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha appointed by the governor Administrator Ascension Island: Colin WELLS (since 27 Ocotber 2011) Administrator Tristan da Cunha: Sean BURNS (since 15 September 2010) cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, 3 ex-officio officers, and 5 elected members of the Legislative Council (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (17 seats, including a speaker and deputy speaker, 12 elected, and three ex officio members; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) note: the Constitution Order provides for separate Island Councils for both Ascension and Tristan da Cunha elections: last held on 4 November 2009 (next to be held in 2013) election results: percent of vote – NA; seats – independents 12
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: private sector; unions
International organization participation: UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
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 Economy
The economy depends largely on financial assistance from the UK, which amounted to about $27 million in FY06/07 or more than twice the level of annual budgetary revenues. The local population earns income from fishing, raising livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, 25% of the work force has left to seek employment on Ascension Island, on the Falklands, and in the UK.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $18 million (1998 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $NA
GDP – real growth rate: NA%
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $2,500 (1998 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Labor force: 2,486 (1998 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 6% industry: 48% services: 46% (1987 est.)
Unemployment rate: 14% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.2% (1997 est.)
Budget: revenues: $10.58 million expenditures: $26 million note: revenue data reflect locally raised revenues only; the budget deficit is resolved by grant aid from the United Kingdom (FY06/07 est.)
Agriculture – products: coffee, corn, potatoes, vegetables; fish, lobster; livestock; timber
Industries: construction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing, philatelic sales
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity – production: 8 million kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 7.44 million kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Oil – production: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – consumption: 100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – imports: 84.68 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas – production: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Exports: $19 million (2004 est.)
Exports – commodities: fish (frozen, canned, and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), coffee, handicrafts
Imports: $45 million (2004 est.)
Imports – commodities: food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
Debt – external: $NA
Exchange rates: Saint Helenian pounds (SHP) per US dollar – 0.6176 (2011) 0.6468 (2010) 0.6175 (2009) 0.5302 (2008) 0.4993 (2007)
Fiscal year: 1 April – 31 March
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 3,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 219
Cellular Phones in use:
Telephone system: general assessment: can communicate worldwide domestic: automatic digital network international: country code (Saint Helena) – 290, (Ascension Island) – 247; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations – 5 (Ascension Island – 4, Saint Helena – 1)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .sh; note – Ascension Island assigned .ac
Internet hosts: 6,724 (2010)
Internet users: 900 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (Ascension Island) (2012) country comparison to the world: 232
Airports (paved runways): total: 1 over 3,047 m: 1 (2012)
Roadways: total: 198 km (Saint Helena 138 km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 20 km) paved: 168 km (Saint Helena 118 km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 10 km) unpaved: 30 km (Saint Helena 20 km, Ascension 0 km, Tristan da Cunha 10 km) (2002)
Ports and terminals: Saint Helena: Jamestown Ascension Island: Georgetown Tristan da Cunha: Calshot Harbor (Edinburgh)
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,565 females age 16-49: 1,579 (2010 est.)

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