Thank you SERBIA!


Serbia is the 37th country to hit 1000 unique views.   We thank you Serbia Population: 7,276,604!

 Background
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany’s occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip “TITO” Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO’s new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC’s leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a “Greater Serbia.” These actions were ultimately unsuccessful and led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government’s rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO’s bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999, to the withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999, and to the stationing of a NATO-led force in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region’s ethnic communities. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UN-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia – an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia’s request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ’s decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo’s status.
 Geography
Controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
Location: Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E
Area: total: 77,474 sq km land: 77,474 sq km water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land Boundaries: total: 2,026 km border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land use: arable land: NA permanent crops: NA other: NA
Irrigated land: 890 sq km
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Population: 7,276,604 (July 2012 est.) note: does not include the population of Kosovo
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.1% (male 567,757/female 532,604) 15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,503,490/female 2,500,949) 65 years and over: 16.5% (male 493,436/female 712,319) (2011 est.)
Median age: total: 41.5 years male: 39.8 years female: 43.2 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.464% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 9.17 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 13.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and above: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.38 deaths/1,000 live births female: 5.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.56 years male: 71.71 years female: 77.58 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,400 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Serb(s) adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groups: Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)
Religions: Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)
Languages: Serbian (official) 88.3%, Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census) note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.9% male: 99.2% female: 96.7% (2010 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Serbia conventional short form: Serbia local long form: Republika Srbija local short form: Srbija former: People’s Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Belgrade (Beograd) geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 167 municipalities (opstine, singular – opstina) Serbia Proper: Belgrade City (Beograd): Barajevo, Cukarica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladenovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zvezdara; Bor: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevo: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Grad Nis: Crveni Krst, Mediana, Niska Banja, Palilula, Pantelej; Jablanica: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medveda, Vlasotince; Kolubara: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macva: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravica: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisava: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinja: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirot: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavlje: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravlje: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rekovac, Svilajnac; Rasina: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raska: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadija: Arandelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplica: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitorada; Zajecar: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zajecar; Zlatibor: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice Vojvodina Autonomous Province: South Backa: Bac, Backa Palanka, Backi Petrovac, Becej, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Srobobran, Temerin, Titel, Vrbas, Zabalj; South Banat: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; North Backa: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; North Banat: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Central Banat: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Srem: Indija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; West Backa: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor
Independence: 5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday: National Day, 15 February
Constitution: adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 31 May 2012) head of government: Prime Minister Ivica DACIC (since 23 July 2012) cabinet: Republican Ministries act as cabinet (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president in runoff election; NIKOLIC 51.2% of the vote, Boris TADIC 48.8% of the vote
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected according to party lists to serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2016) election results: percent of vote by party – Let’s Get Serbia Moving 24.04%, Choice for a Better Life 22.11%, SPS/PUPS/US 14.53%, DS 7.00%, Turnover 6.52%, United Regions of Serbia 5.49%, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 1.77%, other 18.54%; seats by party – Let’s Get Serbia Moving 73, Choice for a Better Life 67, SPS/PUPS/US 44, DS 21, Turnover 19, United Regions of Serbia 16, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 5, other 5 note: current composition – For European Serbia coalition 78, SRS 57, United Region of Serbia 24, Forward Serbia 21, DS 20, SPS-JS 15, LDP 12, NS 9, PUPS 5, others 9
Judicial branch: courts of general jurisdiction (municipal courts, district courts, Appellate Courts, the Supreme Court of Cassation); courts of special jurisdiction (commercial courts, the High Commercial Court, the High Magistrates Court, the Administrative Court)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or VMSZ [Istvan PASTOR]; Bosniak Democratic Party of Sandzak or BDSS [Esad DZUDZEVIC]; Choice for a Better Life (includes the DS) [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV; Democratic Left of the Roma; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Party of Sandzak or SDP; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; G17 Plus/United Regions of Serbia or G17/URS [Mladjan DINKIC]; Let’s Get Serbia Going [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement of Veterans of Serbia; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), with Dragan TODOROVIC as acting leader]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; Social Democratic League of Vojvodina or LSV; Social Democratic Union or SDU; Social Liberal Party of Sandzak or SLPS; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Turnover or U-turn [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; United Regions of Serbia [Mladan DINKIC]; United Serbia or JS [Dragan “Palma” MARKOVIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization); 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement); Dveri (Movement for the Life of Serbia)
International organization participation: BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Vladimir PETROVIC chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333 FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933 consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary WARLICK embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070 telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344 FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
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 Economy
Serbia has a transitional economy mostly dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains large and many institutional reforms are needed. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia’s infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises – including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, national air carrier, and others – remain in state hands. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, but a decision on candidate status has been postponed to 2012. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization, and accession negotiations are at an advanced stage. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country’s long-term prosperity have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Serbia, however, is slowly recovering from the crisis. Economic growth in 2011 was 2.0%, following a modest 1.0% increase in 2010 and a 3.5% contraction in 2009. High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia signed a new $1.3 billion Precautionary Stand By Arrangement with the IMF in September 2011 that was set to expire in March 2013, but the program was frozen in early 2012 because the 2012 budget approved by parliament deviates from the program parameters. Growing deficits constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy, while Serbia’s concerns about inflation and exchange rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. Serbia adopted a new long-term economic growth plan in 2010 that calls for a quadrupling of exports over ten years and heavy investments in basic infrastructure. Since the plan was adopted, Serbia has increased its exports significantly. Major challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for job creation; high government expenditures for salaries, pensions and unemployment benefits; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private foreign debt; attracting new foreign direct investment; and getting the IMF program back on track. Other serious challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia’s economic growth include a strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and Central European Free Trade agreement countries; and a generous package of incentives for foreign investments.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $79.88 billion (2011 est.) $78.48 billion (2010 est.) $77.7 billion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $45.06 billion (2011 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 1.8% (2011 est.) 1% (2010 est.) -3.5% (2009 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $10,800 (2011 est.) $10,600 (2010 est.) $10,500 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 11.2% industry: 18.7% services: 70% (2011 est.)
Labor force: 2.92 million (November 2011 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 21.9% industry: 19.5% services: 58.6% (2010)
Unemployment rate: 23.4% (2011 est.) 20.1% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line: 8.8% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 28.2 (2008) 30 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.2% (2011 est.) 6.2% (2010 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 17% of GDP (2011 est.)
Budget: revenues: $17.57 billion expenditures: $19.55 billion (2011 est.)
Public debt: 45.1% of GDP (2011 est.) 42.9% of GDP (2010 est.) note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment. Debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Agriculture – products: wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, raspberries; beef, pork, milk
Industries: base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2011 est.)
Electricity – production: 36.06 billion kWh (2011)
Electricity – consumption: 35.5 billion kWh (2011)
Electricity – exports: 2.017 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity – imports: 1.9 billion kWh (2011)
Oil – production: 22,730 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Oil – consumption: 50,280 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Oil – exports: 11,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Oil – imports: 27,330 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Oil – proved reserves: 77.5 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas – production: 517 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 2.51 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 2.15 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$4.122 billion (2011 est.) -$3.115 billion (2010 est.)
Exports: $11.78 billion (2011 est.) $9.819 billion (2010 est.)
Exports – commodities: iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition
Exports – partners: Germany 11.3%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 11.2%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 10.1%, Montenegro 7.6%, Romania 6.3%, Russia 5.4%, Macedonia 4.9%, Macedonia 4.4% (2011 est.)
Imports: $19.45 billion (2011 est.) $16.16 billion (2010 est.)
Imports – commodities:
Imports – partners: Russia 12.8%, Germany 10.6%, Italy 8.5%, China 7.2%, Hungary 4.6% (2011 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16.85 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $15.19 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Debt – external: $31.53 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $32.22 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $24.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $11.95 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $8.365 billion (31 December 2011) $9.69 billion (31 December 2010) $11.52 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar – 72.46 (2011 est.) 78.576 (2010 est.) 67.634 (2009) 62.9 (2008) 54.5 (2007)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 3.11 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 50
Cellular Phones in use: 9.915 million (2009)
Telephone system: general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern telecommunications system more than 95% digitalized in 2010 domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007 international: country code – 381 (2009)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .rs
Internet hosts: 1.102 million (2010)
Internet users: 4.107 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 30 (2012) country comparison to the world: 115
Airports (paved runways): total: 11 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 19 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 8 (2012)
Heliports: 2 (2012)
Railways: total: 3,379 km standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (1,196 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways: total: 41,913 km paved: 26,007 km unpaved: 15,906 km (2007)
Waterways: 587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
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 Military
Military branches: Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished effective December 2010; service obligation – 6 months, with reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2010)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,395,426 females age 16-49: 1,356,415 (2010 est.)

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