RUSSIA joins the 1000 view CLUB

Thanks RUSSIA for supporting our BLOG!

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state in which the leadership seeks to legitimize its rule through managed national elections, populist appeals by President PUTIN, and continued economic growth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.
Largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El’brus is Europe’s tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world’s fresh water
Location: North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E
Area: total: 17,098,242 sq km land: 16,377,742 sq km water: 720,500 sq kmSize comparison: approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 20,241.5 km border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 17.5 km, Latvia 292 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
Coastline: 37,653 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Gora El’brus 5,633 m (highest point in Europe)
Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
Land use: arable land: 7.17% permanent crops: 0.11% other: 92.72% (2005)
Irrigated land: 43,460 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka’s most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed “Decade Volcanoes” by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
^Back to Top
Population: 142,500,482 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16% (male 11,740,877/female 11,119,318) 15-24 years: 11.5% (male 8,401,971/female 8,045,363) 25-54 years: 45.9% (male 31,945,797/female 33,417,073) 55-64 years: 13.5% (male 8,177,300/female 11,009,712) 65 years and over: 13.1% (male 5,687,515/female 12,955,556) (2013 est.) population pyramid:
Median age: total: 38.8 years male: 35.6 years female: 42.1 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.01% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 12.3 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 14.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.43 male(s)/female total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births female: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.46 years male: 60.11 years female: 73.18 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 980,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Ethnic groups: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census)
Religions: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule
Languages: Russian (official), many minority languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.6% male: 99.7% female: 99.5% (2010 est.)
^Back to Top
Country name: conventional long form: Russian Federation conventional short form: Russia local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya local short form: Rossiya former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Government type: federation
Capital: name: Moscow geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 36 E time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr; note – Russia has announced that it will remain on daylight saving time permanently, which began on 27 March 2011 note: Russia is divided into 9 time zones
Administrative divisions: 46 provinces (oblastey, singular – oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular – respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular – avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular – kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular – gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast’) oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel’sk, Astrakhan’, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan’, Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver’, Tyumen’, Ul’yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl’ republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa), Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal’chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan’), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk) autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr’), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar’yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard) krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm’, Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol’, Zabaykal’sk (Chita) federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg] autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)
National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012) head of government: Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Vladislav Yuryevich SURKOV (since 27 December 2011) cabinet: the “Government” is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers; all are appointed by the president, and the premier is also confirmed by the Duma (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) note: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note – the term length was extended from four to six years in late 2008 and went into effect after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma election results: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote – Vladimir PUTIN 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV approved by Duma 299 to 144
Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 83 federal administrative units – oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; members to serve four-year terms) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: State Duma – last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2015) election results: State Duma – United Russia 49.6%, CPRF 19.2%, Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR 11.7%, other 6.3%; total seats by party – United Russia 238, CPRF 92, Just Russia 64, LDPR 56
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
Political parties and leaders: A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]; Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Right Cause [Andrey DUNAYEV]; Rodina [Aleksey ZHURAVLEV]; United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]; Yabloko Party [Sergey MITROKHIN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Citizens with Initiative of Russia (TIGR); Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR); Federation of Independent Labor Unions of Russia; Freedom of Choice Interregional Organization of Automobilists; Glasnost Defense Foundation; Golos Association in Defense of Voters’ Rights; Greenpeace Russia; Human Rights Watch (Russian chapter); Institute for Collective Action; Memorial (human rights group); Movement Against Illegal Migration; Pamjat (preservation of historical monuments and recording of history); PARNAS; Russian Orthodox Church; Russian Federation of Car Owners; Russian-Chechen Friendship Society; Solidarnost; SOVA Analytical-Information Center; Union of the Committees of Soldiers’ Mothers; World Wildlife Fund (Russian chapter)
International organization participation: APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-8, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 telephone: [1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708 FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735 consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael A. MCFAUL embassy: Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow mailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721 telephone: [7] (495) 728-5000 FAX: [7] (495) 728-5090 consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg
^Back to Top
Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economy. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. In 2011, Russia became the world’s leading oil producer, surpassing Saudi Arabia; Russia is the second-largest producer of natural gas; Russia holds the world’s largest natural gas reserves, the second-largest coal reserves, and the eighth-largest crude oil reserves. Russia is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia’s reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The government since 2007 has embarked on an ambitious program to reduce this dependency and build up the country’s high technology sectors, but with few visible results so far. The economy had averaged 7% growth in the decade following the 1998 Russian financial crisis, resulting in a doubling of real disposable incomes and the emergence of a middle class. The Russian economy, however, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. According to the World Bank the government’s anti-crisis package in 2008-09 amounted to roughly 6.7% of GDP. The economic decline bottomed out in mid-2009 and the economy began to grow again in the third quarter of 2009. High oil prices buoyed Russian growth in 2011-12 and helped Russia reduce the budget deficit inherited from 2008-09. Russia has reduced unemployment to a record low and has lowered inflation below double digit rates. Russia joined the World Trade Organization in 2012, which will reduce trade barriers in Russia for foreign goods and services and help open foreign markets to Russian goods and services. At the same time, Russia has sought to cement economic ties with countries in the former Soviet space through a Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, and, in the next several years, through the creation of a new Russia-led economic bloc called the Eurasian Economic Union. Russia has had difficulty attracting foreign direct investment and has experienced large capital outflows in the past several years, leading to official programs to improve Russia’s international rankings for its investment climate. Russia’s adoption of a new oil-price-based fiscal rule in 2012 and a more flexible exchange rate policy have improved its ability to deal with external shocks, including volatile oil prices. Russia’s long-term challenges also include a shrinking workforce, rampant corruption, and underinvestment in infrastructure.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.504 trillion (2012 est.) $2.422 trillion (2011 est.) $2.322 trillion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.053 trillion (2012 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 3.4% (2012 est.) 4.3% (2011) 4.5% (2010)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $17,700 (2012 est.) $17,000 (2011 est.) $16,300 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 3.9% industry: 36% services: 60.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 75.6 million (2012 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 7.9% industry: 27.4% services: 64.7% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 5.7% (2012 est.) 6.6% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 12.7% (2011)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.7% highest 10%: 42.4% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 41.7 (2011) 39.9 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (2012 est.) 8.4% (2011 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 19.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget: revenues: $423.4 billion expenditures: $423.8 billion (2012 est.)
Public debt: 12.2% of GDP (2012 est.) 8.3% of GDP (2011 est.) note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment. Debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Agriculture – products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk
Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (2012 est.)
Electricity – production: 1.064 trillion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 5
Electricity – consumption: 1.038 trillion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – exports: 19.14 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – imports: 2.661 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Natural gas – production: 653 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 460 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 200.1 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 32.5 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 47.57 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Current account balance: $81.3 billion (2012 est.) $98.8 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $530.7 billion (2012 est.) $522 billion (2011 est.)
Exports – commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures
Exports – partners: Netherlands 12.2%, China 6.4%, Italy 5.6%, Germany 4.6%, Poland 4.2% (2011)
Imports: $335.4 billion (2012 est.) $323.8 billion (2011 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel
Imports – partners: China 15.5%, Germany 10%, Ukraine 6.6%, Italy 4.3% (2011)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $537.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $498.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt – external: $565.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $545.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $504.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $457.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $412.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $362.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $845.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $796.4 billion (31 December 2011) $1.005 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar – 31.32 (2012 est.) 29.382 (2011 est.) 30.368 (2010 est.) 31.74 (2009) 24.853 (2008)
Fiscal year: calendar year
^Back to Top
Telephones in use: 44.152 million (2011) country comparison to the world: 5
Cellular Phones in use: 236.7 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than 235 million in 2011; fixed line service has improved but a large demand remains domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density international: country code – 7; Russia is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2011)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .ru; note – Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain “.su” that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out
Internet hosts: 14.865 million (2012)
Internet users: 40.853 million (2009)
^Back to Top
Airports: 1,218 (2012) country comparison to the world: 5
Airports (paved runways): total: 593 over 3,047 m: 54 2,438 to 3,047 m: 198 1,524 to 2,437 m: 125 914 to 1,523 m: 95 under 914 m: 121 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 625 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 1,524 to 2,437 m: 69 914 to 1,523 m: 85 under 914 m: 454 (2012)
Heliports: 48 (2012)
Pipelines: condensate 122 km; gas 160,952 km; liquid petroleum gas 127 km; oil 77,630 km; oil/gas/water 38 km; refined products 13,658 km (2010)
Railways: total: 87,157 km broad gauge: 86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified) narrow gauge: 957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island) note: an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2006)
Roadways: total: 982,000 km paved: 776,000 km (includes 30,000 km of expressways) unpaved: 206,000 km note: includes public, local, and departmental roads (2009)
Waterways: 102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000 km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
Merchant marine: total: 1,143 by type: bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 3 foreign-owned: 155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14, Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine 12) registered in other countries: 439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize 30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3, Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu 7, unknown 19) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Kaliningrad, Kavkaz, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Saint Petersburg, Vostochnyy
^Back to Top
Military branches: Ground Forces (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV), Strategic Rocket Forces (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN), and Aerospace Defense Troops (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or Voyska VKO) are independent “combat arms,” not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground Forces include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of the ground troops (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; service obligation – 1 year (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation to age 50 note: the chief of the General Staff Mobilization Directorate announced in March 2009 that for health reasons, only 65% of draftees in 2008 were fit for military service, and over half of these had health-induced restrictions on deployment; the deputy chief of the Russian Army General Staff confirmed in May 2011 that over 30% of potential conscripts were turned down on health grounds; 61% of draft-age Russian males receive some type of deferment each draft cycle (2011)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 34,132,156 females age 16-49: 34,985,115 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 20,431,035 females age 16-49: 26,381,518 (2010 est.)

Author: advgrrl

Avid ADV rider! This Blog is all about the adventure in adventure riding. Researching new bikes, routes, accessories, learning about other riders and hopefully a great place for others to comment and explore with me. PLUS, up and down's, wildlife, my dogs, my life!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: