THANKS CHILE for hitting 1000 views!


 Background
Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the country’s commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.
 Geography
The longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 38 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert – the driest desert in the world – spreads across the northern part of the country; the crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world’s highest lake (at 6,390 m)
Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W
Area: total: 756,102 sq km land: 743,812 sq km water: 12,290 sq km note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y GomezSize comparison: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 6,339 km border countries: Argentina 5,308 km, Bolivia 860 km, Peru 171 km
Coastline: 6,435 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200/350 nm
Climate: temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 2.62% permanent crops: 0.43% other: 96.95% (2005)
Irrigated land: 19,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (elev. 5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (elev. 3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country’s most active; Chaiten’s 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica
Current Environment Issues: widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Population: 17,216,945 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 1,846,433/female 1,771,225) 15-24 years: 16.6% (male 1,457,772/female 1,398,684) 25-54 years: 43.2% (male 3,694,178/female 3,738,355) 55-64 years: 9.6% (male 771,790/female 872,824) 65 years and over: 9.7% (male 694,570/female 971,114) (2013 est.) population pyramid:
Median age: total: 32.8 years male: 31.6 years female: 34.1 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.88% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 14.3 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 5.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births female: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.1 years male: 75.08 years female: 81.25 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 40,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Chilean(s) adjective: Chilean
Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95.4%, Mapuche 4%, other indigenous groups 0.6% (2002 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 70%, Evangelical 15.1%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 1.1%, other Christian 1%, other 4.6%, none 8.3% (2002 census)
Languages: Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 95.7% male: 95.8% female: 95.6% (2002 census)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chile conventional short form: Chile local long form: Republica de Chile local short form: Chile
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Santiago geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, under a new pilot program begins second Sunday in September; ends fourth Sunday in April note: Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature
Administrative divisions: 15 regions (regiones, singular – region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended several times
Legal system: civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and voluntary
Executive branch: chief of state: President Sebastian PINERA Echenique (since 11 March 2010); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Sebastian PINERA Echenique (since 11 March 2010) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 13 December 2009 with runoff election held on 17 January 2010 (next to be held 17 November 2013) election results: Sebastian PINERA Echenique elected president; percent of vote – Sebastian PINERA Echenique 51.6%; Eduardo FREI 48.4%
Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve eight-year terms; one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate – last held on 13 December 2009 (next to be held in November 2013); Chamber of Deputies – last held on 13 December 2009 (next to be held in November 2013) election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – CPD 9 (PDC 4, PPD 3, PS 2), APC 9 (RN 6, UDI 3); Chamber of Deputies – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – APC 58 (UDI 37, RN 18, other 3), CPD 57 (PDC 19, PPD 18, PS 11, PRSD 5, PC 3, other 1), PRI 3, independent 2; note – as of 19 February 2013, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate – seats by party – CPD 19 (PDC 9, PPD 4, PS 5, PRSD 1), Coalition for Change (former APC) 16 (RN 8, UDI 8), independent 2, MAS 1; Chamber of Deputies – seats by party – Coalition for Change (former APC) 56 (UDI 39, RN 17), CPD 53 (PDC 19, PPD 18, PS 11, PRSD 5), independent 5, PC 3, PRI 2, IC 1
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected every two years by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal (ten-members – three appointed by the President, three by the Supreme Court via secret ballot, two by the Senate, and two by the Senate from a list proposed by the Chamber of Deputies – review the constitutionality of laws approved by Congress); Constitutional Tribunal (eight-members – two each from the Senate, Chamber of Deputies, Supreme Court, and National Security Council – review the constitutionality of laws approved by Congress)
Political parties and leaders: Broad Social Movement or MAS [Alejandro NAVARRO Brain]; Citizen Left or IC; Equality Party [Lautaro GUANCA Vallejos]; Coalition for Change or CC (also known as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena], and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Patricio MELERO]; Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertacion) or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ignacio WALKER Prieto], Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime Daniel QUINTANA Leal], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia], and Socialist Party or PS [Osvaldo ANDRADE Lara]); Ecological Green Party [Cristian VILLAROEL Novoa]; Humanist Party or PH [Danilo MONTEVERDE Reyes]; Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Carlos OLIVARES Zepeda]; Progressive Party or PRO [Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI Gumucio]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country’s five largest labor confederations other: university student federations at all major universities
International organization participation: APEC, BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe BULNES Serrano chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746 FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alejandro D. WOLFF embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago mailing address: APO AA 34033 telephone: [56] (2) 330-3000 FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710, 330-3160
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 Economy
Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports account for more than one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some three-quarters of total exports. Copper alone provides one-third of government revenue. During the early 1990s, Chile’s reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN – which took over from the military in 1990 – deepened the economic reform initiated by the military government. Since 1999, growth has averaged 4% per year. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile claims to have more bilateral or regional trade agreements than any other country. It has 59 such agreements (not all of them full free trade agreements), including with the European Union, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. Over the past seven years, foreign direct investment inflows have quadrupled to some $15 billion in 2010, but foreign direct investment had dropped to about $7 billion in 2009 in the face of diminished investment throughout the world. The Chilean government conducts a rule-based countercyclical fiscal policy, accumulating surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and allowing deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. As of November 2011, those sovereign wealth funds – kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves – amounted to more than $18 billion. Chile used this fund to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn. In December 2009, the OECD invited Chile to become a full member, after a two year period of compliance with organization mandates, and in May 2010 Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD. The economy started to show signs of a rebound in the fourth quarter of 2009, and GDP has grown more than 5% per year in the three years since. Chile achieved this growth despite the 8.8 magnitude earthquake that struck in February 2010, which was one of the top 10 strongest earthquakes on record. The earthquake and subsequent tsunamis it generated caused considerable damage near the epicenter, located about 70 miles from Concepcion – and about 200 miles southwest of Santiago.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $319.4 billion (2012 est.) $304.3 billion (2011 est.) $287.3 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $268.3 billion (2012 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 5% (2012 est.) 5.9% (2011 est.) 6.1% (2010 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $18,400 (2012 est.) $17,600 (2011 est.) $16,800 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 3.5% industry: 37% services: 59.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 8.231 million (2012 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 13.2% industry: 23% services: 63.9% (2005)
Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2012 est.) 6.6% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 15.1% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5% highest 10%: 42.8% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 52.1 (2009) 57.1 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2012 est.) 3.3% (2011 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 23.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget: revenues: $59.49 billion expenditures: $55.73 billion (2012 est.)
Public debt: 10.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 11.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Agriculture – products: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
Industries: copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (2011 est.)
Electricity – production: 59.75 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 45
Electricity – consumption: 53.24 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – imports: 958 million kWh (2010 est.)
Natural gas – production: 1.779 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 5.318 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 3.458 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 97.97 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Current account balance: -$9.769 billion (2012 est.) -$3.387 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $83.66 billion (2012 est.) $80.76 billion (2011 est.)
Exports – commodities: copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
Exports – partners: China 22.8%, US 11.1%, Japan 11.1%, Brazil 5.5%, South Korea 5.5%, Netherlands 4.7% (2011)
Imports: $70.2 billion (2012 est.) $66.2 billion (2011 est.)
Imports – commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
Imports – partners: US 20.1%, China 16.9%, Brazil 8.3%, Argentina 6.3%, Germany 4.2% (2011)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $42.99 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $41.94 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt – external: $102.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $95.99 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $179.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $156.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $72.84 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $60.84 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $270.3 billion (31 December 2011) $341.6 billion (31 December 2010) $209.5 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar – 488.9 (2012 est.) 483.67 (2011 est.) 510.25 (2010 est.) 560.86 (2009) 509.02 (2008)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 3.366 million (2011) country comparison to the world: 49
Cellular Phones in use: 22.4 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons international: country code – 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .cl
Internet hosts: 2.152 million (2012)
Internet users: 7.009 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 476 (2012) country comparison to the world: 16
Airports (paved runways): total: 88 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 22 914 to 1,523 m: 30 under 914 m: 24 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 388 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 54 under 914 m: 318 (2012)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Pipelines: gas 3,064 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 895 km; refined products 768 km (2010)
Railways: total: 7,082 km broad gauge: 3,435 km 1.676-m gauge (850 km electrified) narrow gauge: 3,647 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total: 77,764 km paved: 18,119 km (includes 2,387 km of expressways) unpaved: 59,645 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total: 42 by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 5, chemical tanker 7, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1) registered in other countries: 52 (Argentina 6, Brazil 1, Honduras 1, Isle of Man 9, Liberia 9, Panama 14, Peru 6, Singapore 6) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso
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 Military
Military branches: Army of the Nation, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes Naval Aviation, Marine Corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh), Carabineros Corps (Cuerpo de Carabineros) (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment is retained; service obligation – 12 months for Army, 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2008)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 4,324,732 females age 16-49: 4,251,954 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 3,621,475 females age 16-49: 3,561,099 (2010 est.)

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