CHINA hits the 1000 views CLUB!


THANKS CHINA!

 Background
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China’s sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO’s successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
 Geography
World’s fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world’s tallest peak
Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Area: total: 9,596,961 sq km land: 9,569,901 sq km water: 27,060 sq kmSize comparison: slightly smaller than the US
Land Boundaries: total: 22,117 km border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km
Coastline: 14,500 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest point in Asia)
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world’s largest)
Land use: arable land: 14.86% permanent crops: 1.27% other: 83.87% (2005)
Irrigated land: 641,410 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P’aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Current Environment Issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Population: 1,349,585,838 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.2% (male 124,773,577/female 107,286,198) 15-24 years: 15.4% (male 109,922,192/female 98,325,568) 25-54 years: 46.7% (male 322,161,347/female 308,101,780) 55-64 years: 11.3% (male 77,374,476/female 75,289,733) 65 years and over: 9.4% (male 60,597,243/female 65,753,724) (2013 est.) population pyramid:
Median age: total: 35.9 years male: 35.2 years female: 36.6 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.481% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 12.31 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 7.17 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.17 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 15.62 deaths/1,000 live births male: 15.38 deaths/1,000 live births female: 15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.84 years male: 72.82 years female: 77.11 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.55 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 740,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: 26,000 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural) adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census)
Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2% note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry) note: Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 92.2% male: 96% female: 88.5% (2007)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: People’s Republic of China conventional short form: China local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo local short form: Zhongguo abbreviation: PRC
Government type: Communist state
Capital: name: Beijing geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial “Xinjiang time zone” of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural) provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan) autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet) municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence: 1 October 1949 (People’s Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 BC (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
National holiday: Anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, 1 October (1949)
Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982; amended several times
Legal system: civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note – criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013) head of government: Premier LI Yuanchao (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premier ZHANG Gaoli (16 March 2013), Vice Premier LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), Vice Premier MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), and Vice Premier WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013) cabinet: State Council appointed by National People’s Congress (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected by National People’s Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People’s Congress election results: XI Jinping elected president by National People’s Congress with a total of 2,952 votes; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with a total of 2,940 votes
Legislative branch: unicameral National People’s Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people’s congresses, and People’s Liberation Army to serve five-year terms) elections: last held in December 2007-February 2008 (next to be held in late 2012 to early 2013) election results: percent of vote – NA; seats – 2,987 note: in practice, only members of the CCP, its eight allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
Judicial branch: Supreme People’s Court (judges appointed by the National People’s Congress); Local People’s Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People’s Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts)
Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]; eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Political pressure groups and leaders: no substantial political opposition groups exist
International organization participation: ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador ZHANG Yesui; Ambassador-Designate CUI Tiankai chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266 FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gary LOCKE embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000 FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300 consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
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 Economy
Since the late 1970s China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role – in 2010 China became the world’s largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, creation of a diversified banking system, development of stock markets, rapid growth of the private sector, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors it considers important to “economic security,” explicitly looking to foster globally competitive national champions. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid 2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2012 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, having surpassed Japan in 2001. The dollar values of China’s agricultural and industrial output each exceed those of the US; China is second to the US in the value of services it produces. Still, per capita income is below the world average. The Chinese government faces numerous economic challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic demand; (b) sustaining adequate job growth for tens of millions of migrants and new entrants to the work force; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy’s rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2011 more than 250 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment – notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North – is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. In 2010-11, China faced high inflation resulting largely from its credit-fueled stimulus program. Some tightening measures appear to have controlled inflation, but GDP growth consequently slowed to under 8% for 2012. An economic slowdown in Europe contributed to China’s, and is expected to further drag Chinese growth in 2013. Debt overhang from the stimulus program, particularly among local governments, and a property price bubble challenge policy makers currently. The government’s 12th Five-Year Plan, adopted in March 2011, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent on exports in the future. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $12.38 trillion (2012 est.) $11.48 trillion (2011 est.) $10.51 trillion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $8.26 trillion note: because China’s exchange rate is determine by fiat, rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China’s output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China’s output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China’s situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries (2012 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 7.8% (2012 est.) 9.3% (2011 est.) 10.4% (2010 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $9,100 (2012 est.) $8,500 (2011 est.) $7,800 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 10.1% industry: 45.3% services: 44.6% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 795.4 million note: by the end of 2012, China’s population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.0040 billion
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 34.8% industry: 29.5% services: 35.7% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2012 est.) 6.5% (2011 est.) note: registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants, was 4.1% in 2012
Population below poverty line: 13.4% note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $3630; the population below the poverty line in rular areas numbered 98.99 million at the end of 2012 or 7.3% of the rural population (2011)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5% highest 10%: 15% note: data are for urban households only (2008)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 47.4 (2012) 48.4 (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2012 est.) 5.4% (2011 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 47.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.865 trillion expenditures: $2 trillion (2012 est.)
Public debt: 31.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 38.5% of GDP (2011) note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China’s National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion)in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
Agriculture – products: world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Industries: world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Industrial production growth rate: 7.9% (2012 est.)
Electricity – production: 4.94 trillion kWh (2012) country comparison to the world: 2
Electricity – consumption: 4.693 trillion kWh (2011)
Electricity – exports: 17.65 billion kWh (2012)
Electricity – imports: 6.874 billion kWh (2012)
Natural gas – production: 107.7 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 147.1 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 3.21 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 42.5 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 3.2 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Current account balance: $213.8 billion (2012 est.) $201.7 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $2.05 trillion (2012 est.) $1.899 trillion (2011 est.)
Exports – commodities: electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits
Exports – partners: US 17.2%, Hong Kong 15.8%, Japan 7.4%, South Korea 4.3%, Germany 3.4% (2012 est.)
Imports: $1.817 trillion (2012 est.) $1.741 trillion (2011 est.)
Imports – commodities: electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels, optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles
Imports – partners: Japan 9.8%, South Korea 9.3%, US 7.3%, Germany 5.1%, Australia 4.6% (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.312 trillion (31 December 2012 est.) $3.181 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt – external: $770.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $695 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $1.344 trillion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.232 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $502 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $424.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.665 trillion (31 December 2012 est.) $3.408 trillion (31 December 2011) $4.763 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar – 6.311 (2012 est.) 6.4615 (2011 est.) 6.7703 (2010 est.) 6.8314 (2009) 6.9385 (2008)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 285.115 million (2011) country comparison to the world: 1
Cellular Phones in use: 986.253 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users exceeded 564 million by the end of 2012; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place international: country code – 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations – 7 (5 Intelsat – 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik – Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat – Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .cn
Internet hosts: 20.602 million (2012)
Internet users: 389 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 497 (2012) country comparison to the world: 14
Airports (paved runways): total: 452 over 3,047 m: 68 2,438 to 3,047 m: 147 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126 914 to 1,523 m: 26 under 914 m: 85 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 45 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 21 (2012)
Heliports: 50 (2012)
Pipelines: gas 38,566 km; oil 23,470 km; refined products 13,706 km (2010)
Railways: total: 86,000 km standard gauge: 86,000 km 1.435-m gauge (36,000 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total: 4,106,387 km paved: 3,453,890 km (includes 84,946 km of expressways) unpaved: 652,497 km (2011)
Waterways: 110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
Merchant marine: total: 2,030 by type: barge carrier 7, bulk carrier 621, cargo 566, carrier 10, chemical tanker 140, container 206, liquefied gas 60, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 264, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23 foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2) registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Dalian, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
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 Military
Military branches: People’s Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF; includes Airborne Forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People’s Armed Police (PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2 year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in training in 2011 (2010)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 385,821,101 females age 16-49: 363,789,674 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 318,265,016 females age 16-49: 300,323,611 (2010 est.)

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