194th Country to Visit Our BLOG – Welcome Mali Population: 14,533,511


 Background
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali’s first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali’s two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. A military coup overthrew the government in March 2012, claiming that the government had not adequately supported the Malian army’s fight against an advancing Tuareg-led rebellion in the north. Heavy international pressure forced coup leaders to accelerate the transition back to democratic rule and, to that end, Dioncounda TRAORE was installed as interim president on 12 April 2012.

 Geography
Landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Location: interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Area: total: 1,240,192 sq km land: 1,220,190 sq km water: 20,002 sq kmSize comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 7,243 km border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d’Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use: arable land: 3.76% permanent crops: 0.03% other: 96.21% (2005)
Irrigated land: 2,360 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Population: 14,533,511 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.3% (male 3,372,717/female 3,325,188) 15-64 years: 49.7% (male 3,438,687/female 3,605,143) 65 years and over: 3% (male 199,862/female 218,307) (2011 est.)
Median age: total: 16.4 years male: 16 years female: 16.7 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.613% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 45.15 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 13.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: -5.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 109.08 deaths/1,000 live births male: 115.85 deaths/1,000 live births female: 102.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.06 years male: 51.43 years female: 54.73 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 76,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: 4,400 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Malian(s) adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions: Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 31.1% male: 43.4% female: 20.3% (2010 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali conventional short form: Mali local long form: Republique de Mali local short form: Mali former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Bamako geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular – region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)
Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system: civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: [Interim] President Dioncounda TRAORE (since 12 April 2012) note: in the aftermath of the March 2012 coup, deposed President TOURE, in a brokered deal, resigned to facilitate the naming of an interim president and transition back toward democratic rule head of government: [Interim] Prime Minister Cheick Modibo DIARRA (since 17 April 2012) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held on 29 April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote – Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012) election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders: African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali’s northern region); Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: the army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company CMDT; tuaregs
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU (suspended), CD, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Al Maamoun Baba Lamine KEITA chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950 FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako telephone: [223] 270-2300 FAX: [223] 270-2479
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 Economy
Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country’s fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government in 2011 completed an IMF extended credit facility program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify foreign exchange revenue away from gold. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali experienced economic growth of about 5% per year between 1996-2010.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $18.1 billion (2011 est.) $17.63 billion (2010 est.) $16.66 billion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.6 billion (2011 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 2.7% (2011 est.) 5.8% (2010 est.) 4.5% (2009 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $1,100 (2011 est.) $1,100 (2010 est.) $1,100 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 38.8% industry: 21.9% services: 39.3% (2011 est.)
Labor force: 3.241 million (2007 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 30% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7% highest 10%: 30.5% (2006)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 40.1 (2001) 50.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2011 est.) 1.1% (2010 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.16 billion expenditures: $2.618 billion (2011 est.)
Agriculture – products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity – production: 490 million kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 455.7 million kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh note: Mali may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2009 est.)
Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Oil – production: 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – consumption: 6,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – imports: 4,507 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas – production: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 0 cu m (2009 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.016 billion (2011 est.) -$973.7 million (2010 est.)
Exports: $2.253 billion (2011 est.) $1.873 billion (2010 est.)
Exports – commodities: cotton, gold, livestock
Exports – partners: China 32.5%, South Korea 15.2%, Indonesia 12.8%, Thailand 6.6%, Bangladesh 5.3% (2011)
Imports: $2.533 billion (2011 est.) $2.286 billion (2010 est.)
Imports – commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports – partners: Senegal 15%, France 11.7%, China 8.2%, Cote dIvoire 6.3% (2011)
Debt – external: $3.192 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $2.858 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $2.248 billion $2.053 billion
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $53.23 million $21.74 million
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar – 473.7 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010 est.) 472.19 (2009) 493.51 (2007)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 114,400 (2009) country comparison to the world: 144
Cellular Phones in use: 7.326 million (2009)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply and now exceeds 50 per 100 persons international: country code – 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .ml
Internet hosts: 438 (2010)
Internet users: 249,800 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 21 (2012) country comparison to the world: 135
Airports (paved runways): total: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 13 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 3 (2012)
Railways: total: 593 km narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total: 18,912 km paved: 3,597 km unpaved: 15,315 km (2004)
Waterways: 1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
Ports and terminals: Koulikoro
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 Military
Military branches: Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation – 2 years (2010)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,848,412 females age 16-49: 2,981,106 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,825,779 females age 16-49: 1,968,563 (2010 est.)

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