THANK YOU Czech Republic (OVER 1000 Unique views)


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 Background
At the close of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, having rejected a federal system, the new country’s leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). On the eve of World War II, the Czech part of the country was forcibly annexed to the Third Reich, and the Slovaks declared independence as an ally of Nazi Germany. After the war, a reunited but truncated Czechoslovakia (less Ruthenia) fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country’s leaders to liberalize Communist Party rule and create “socialism with a human face.” Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression known as “normalization.” With the collapse of Soviet-backed authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its democracy through a peaceful “Velvet Revolution.” On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a “velvet divorce” into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
 Geography
Landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
Location: Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria
Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E
Area: total: 78,867 sq km land: 77,247 sq km water: 1,620 sq kmSize comparison: slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land Boundaries: total: 1,989 km border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 815 km, Poland 615 km, Slovakia 197 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Elbe River 115 m highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Land use: arable land: 38.82% permanent crops: 3% other: 58.18% (2005)
Irrigated land: 390 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: flooding
Current Environment Issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Population: 10,177,300 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.5% (male 704,495/female 666,191) 15-64 years: 70.2% (male 3,599,774/female 3,554,158) 65 years and over: 16.3% (male 663,982/female 1,001,613) (2011 est.)
Median age: total: 41.1 years male: 39.6 years female: 42.9 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.134% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 8.62 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 10.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.38 years male: 74.11 years female: 80.83 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.27 children born/woman (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Czech(s) adjective: Czech
Ethnic groups: Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59% (2001 census)
Languages: Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8% (2001 census)
Literacy: definition: NA total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (2003 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Czech Republic conventional short form: Czech Republic local long form: Ceska Republika local short form: Cesko
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Prague geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 13 regions (kraje, singular – kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky, Kralovehradecky, Liberecky, Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky, Pardubicky, Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky, Vysocina, Zlinsky
Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note – although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs generally consider 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day
National holiday: Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993; amended several times
Legal system: civil law system based on former Austro-Hungarian civil codes and socialist theory; note – Czech parliament has modernized many elements of legal system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003) head of government: Prime Minister Petr NECAS (since 28 June 2010); First Deputy Prime Minister Karel SCHWARZENBERG (since 13 July 2010), Deputy Prime Minister Karolina PEAKE (since 1 July 2011) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held on 15 February 2008 (after inconclusive elections held 8 and 9 February 2008; next election to be held in 2013); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Vaclav KLAUS reelected president on 15 February 2008; Vaclav KLAUS 141 votes, Jan SVEJNAR 111 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate – last held in two rounds on 15-16 and 22-23 October 2010 (next to be held by October 2012); Chamber of Deputies – last held on 28-29 May 2010 (next to be held by 2014) election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – CSSD 41, ODS 25, KDU-CSL 6, TOP 09 5, others 4; Chamber of Deputies – percent of vote by party – CSSD 22.1%, ODS 20.2%, TOP 09 16.7%, KSCM 11.3%, VV 10.9%, other 18.8%; seats by party – CSSD 54, ODS 52, TOP 09 41, KSCM 26, VV 21, unaffiliated 6
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; judges are appointed by the president for an unlimited term; Constitutional Court; 15 judges are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate for a 10-year term; Supreme Administrative Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term; judges are appointed by the president for an unlimited term
Political parties and leaders: Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Zdenka MARKOVA]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People’s Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr NECAS]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA]; Green Party [Ondrej LISKA]; Public Affairs or VV [Radek JOHN]; Tradice Odpovednost Prosperita 09 or TOP 09 [Karel SCHWARZENBERG]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Jaroslav ZAVADIL]
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Petr GANDALOVIC chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100 FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Norman EISEN embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [420] 257 022 000 FAX: [420] 257 022 809
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 Economy
The Czech Republic is a stable and prosperous market economy, which harmonized its laws and regulations with those of the EU prior to its EU accession in 2004. While the conservative, inward-looking Czech financial system has remained relatively healthy, the small, open, export-driven Czech economy remains sensitive to changes in the economic performance of its main export markets, especially Germany. When Western Europe and Germany fell into recession in late 2008, demand for Czech goods plunged, leading to double digit drops in industrial production and exports. As a result, real GDP fell 4.7% in 2009, with most of the decline occurring during the first quarter. Real GDP, however, has slowly recovered with positive quarter-on-quarter growth starting in the second half of 2009 and continuing throughout 2011. The auto industry remains the largest single industry, and, together with its upstream suppliers, accounts for nearly 24% of Czech manufacturing. The Czech Republic produced more than a million cars for the first time in 2010, over 80% of which were exported. Foreign and domestic businesses alike voice concerns about corruption especially in public procurement. Other long term challenges include dealing with a rapidly aging population, funding an unsustainable pension and health care system, and diversifying away from manufacturing and toward a more high-tech, services-based, knowledge economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $288.6 billion (2011 est.) $283.9 billion (2010 est.) $276.3 billion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $215.3 billion (2011 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 1.7% (2011 est.) 2.7% (2010 est.) -4.7% (2009 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP): $27,400 (2011 est.) $27,000 (2010 est.) $26,400 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 1.6% industry: 38.1% services: 60.3% (2011 est.)
Labor force: 5.41 million (2011 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 3.1% industry: 38.6% services: 58.3% (2009)
Unemployment rate: 8.5% (2011 est.) 9% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line: 9% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5% highest 10%: NA% (2009)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 31 (2009) 25.4 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2011 est.) 1.5% (2010 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): Investment (gross fixed): 23.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
Budget: revenues: $51.45 billion expenditures: $59.41 billion (2011 est.)
Public debt: 40.7% of GDP (2011 est.) 37.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
Agriculture – products: wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Industries: motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate: 6.9% (2011 est.)
Electricity – production: 79.47 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 59.26 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – exports: 21.59 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – imports: 6.6 billion kWh (2010)
Oil – production: 10,310 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – consumption: 195,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil – exports: 25,480 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – imports: 208,800 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil – proved reserves: 15 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Natural gas – production: 128.3 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 8.075 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 167.3 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 9.32 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$6.348 billion (2011 est.) -$5.993 billion (2010 est.)
Exports: $138.5 billion (2011 est.) $116.7 billion (2010 est.)
Exports – commodities: machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuel, chemicals
Exports – partners: Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 9%, Poland 6.3%, France 5.5%, Austria 4.6%, UK 4.6%, Italy 4.2% (2010 est.)
Imports: $133.2 billion (2011 est.) $113.9 billion (2010 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
Imports – partners: Germany 29.7%, China 7.6%, Poland 7.1%, Slovakia 7%, Netherlands 5.7%, Russia 4.8%, Austria 4.4% (2010 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $40.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $42.49 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Debt – external: $101.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $95.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $134.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $129.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $16.82 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $15.52 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $53.2 billion (31 December 2011) $73.1 billion (31 December 2010) $70.26 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: koruny (CZK) per US dollar – 17.25 (2011 est.) 19.098 (2010 est.) 19.063 (2009) 17.064 (2008) 20.53 (2007)
Fiscal year: calendar year
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 2.198 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 55
Cellular Phones in use: 14.331 million (2009)
Telephone system: general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s but the number of fixed line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population international: country code – 420; satellite earth stations – 6 (2 Intersputnik – Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2009)
Radio broadcast stations:
Television broadcast stations:
Internet country code: .cz
Internet hosts: 4.14 million (2010)
Internet users: 6.681 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 128 (2012) country comparison to the world: 45
Airports (paved runways): total: 41 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 16 (2012)
Airports (unpaved runways): total: 87 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 26 under 914 m: 60 (2012)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Pipelines: gas 7,010 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2010)
Railways: total: 9,469 km standard gauge: 9,449 km 1.435-m gauge (3,165 km electrified) narrow gauge: 20 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total: 127,797 km (includes urban roads) paved: 127,797 km (includes 730 km of expressways) (2008)
Waterways: 664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010)
Merchant marine: registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
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 Military
Military branches: Army of the Czech Republic (Armada Ceske Republiky): Joint Forces Command (Spolocene Sily; includes Land Forces (Pozemni Sily) and Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily)) note: the Ministry of Defense plans to abolish the Joint Forces Command in 2012 and reestablish separate Land and Air Forces Commands (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,506,826 females age 16-49: 2,407,634 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,072,267 females age 16-49: 1,988,839 (2010 est.)

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